Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO)

Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EO) is an increasingly recognised chronic, relapsing inflammatory condition of the oesophagus. There has been a mini-epidemic of EO in the last decade. The incidence of this condition is higher in children and is commoner in males. There is either a family or personal history of atopic conditions present in a significant number of patients and can also be familial in up to 10%. The classical symptom in an adult is chronic, intermittent solid-food dysphagia and food impaction, often necessitating emergency endoscopic removal. Despite the history of dysphagia for a number of years, patients remain well with no weight loss, which can mislead clinicians to diagnose a functional problem with a resulting delay in the diagnosis. There are various endoscopic features of EO; commonly multiple rings and linear furrows, though these can be subtle and the mucosa may be macroscopically normal. The hallmark of this condition is the histological presence of 15 eosinophils/high power field (HPF) in the oesophageal mucosa. Therapeutic options include avoidance of dietary allergens, topical or systemic steroids, Montelukast, Mepolizumab (anti-IL-5 antibody) and endoscopic dilation of strictures unresponsive to medical therapy.