Spasmodic dysphonia

Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a chronic voice disorder of unknown origin that is characterized by excessive or inappropriate contraction of laryngeal muscles during speech. Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) manifests as excessive glottic closure (adductor dysphonia) or prolonged lateralization of the vocal folds (abductor dysphonia). Strained or strangled phonation and irregular voice stoppages (the form originally described and most commonly observed clinically) characterize adductor dysphonia. Abductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD) presents with a breathy or absent voice or brief vocal loss.
The following treatment options are currently available:
Botulinum toxin muscle injection
Type II laryngoplasty
Voice therapy
Recurrent laryngeal nerve denervation and reinnervation
TA and lateral cricoarytenoid myectomy
Oral medical therapy

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